RoyaltyStat Blog

Ednaldo Silva

Ph.D. Economics from U.C. Berkeley. Founder & Director of RoyaltyStat. Developer of the TNMM = CPM.

Recent Posts

Oligopoly Profit Markup

Posted by Ednaldo Silva

Corporate profits should concern policymakers, including tax legislators and tax administrators.

In economic theory, high profits converge toward an entrepreneurial average because of the expected inter-industry flow of investments. According to Stigler’s (1963, p. 54) hyperbole, “There is no more important proposition in economic theory than that, under competition, the rate of return on investment tends toward equality in all industries.”

The CAPM is Misapplied in Transfer Pricing

Posted by Ednaldo Silva

The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) is widely used to calculate the expected return of equity shares, considering their risk relative to a stock market portfolio. The CAPM is ill-suited to valuing assets that lack stock’s spot market price volatility. Thus, we argue that the CAPM should not be used to determine the arm’s length remuneration for the intra-group transfer of intangibles.

Creating Defensible Transfer Pricing Reports

Posted by Ednaldo Silva

“We shall renounce . . . the subterfuges.”

Return on Assets When Assets are Exogenous

Posted by Ednaldo Silva

We suggested on prior blogs that operating assets (measured by property, plant & equipment) are endogenous and that structural equation estimates of return on assets produce biased coefficients. Here, we provide another alternative from biased estimates of return on assets than using exotic algorithms like two-stage least squares.

The Standard Measure of Return on Assets is Biased

Posted by Ednaldo Silva

Economic models must have mathematical beauty; they must be parsimonious!

Paraphrasing Paul Dirac (1955), Physical laws should have mathematical beauty, quoted in Abraham País, Maurice Jacob, David Olive, Michael Atiyah, Paul Dirac (The Man and his Work), Cambridge University Press, 1998, p. 46.

Safe Harbors for U.S. Retailers

Posted by Ednaldo Silva

Después de tanto soportar la pena de sentir tu olvido … y si pretendes remover las ruinas que tú mismo hiciste

Cenizas in the poignant voice of Toña La Negra. Classic bolero lyrics by Wello Rivas (1913-1990).

Transfer Prices Based on EBITDA, not EBIT

Posted by Ednaldo Silva

In applying the comparable profits method (CPM) in the U.S. or the “transactional” net margin method (TNMM) in other OECD countries, many transfer pricing analysts assume that the depreciation rate of property, plant, and equipment is the same among the individual comparables and the tested party.

Transfer Pricing Methods Based on Operating Profits

Posted by Ednaldo Silva

L’un fece il mundo e l’altro l’ha distrutto.

(Unattributed quote in Meditaciones del Quijote (1914), by José Ortega y Gasset)

The “Return on Assets” Excludes Self-Developed Intangibles

Posted by Ednaldo Silva

The “return on assets” is an unsatisfactory profit level indicator (PLI) for the “transactional” net margin and comparable profits methods in transfer pricing because (among other major defects) self-developed intangibles are excluded from the assets base denominator. Assets are also composed of heterogeneous balance sheet accounts with different depreciation rates.

Operating assets are “solid, massy, hard” and cannot be moved from one company to another within the same industry (horizontal market consolidation) or across companies in different industries (vertical market consolidation), without a time-consuming assets purchase agreement. Moreover, if the intra-company assets transfers are large, anti-trust regulatory impediments may occur.

The idea that “return on assets” is a superior PLI because of its fluent or gravitation properties is not consistent with reality. This dubious return on assets sobriquet is posited as a matter of faith because to our knowledge economics is devoid of rigorous demonstrations of the conditions required for such gravitation to occur in actual industries dominated by oligopoly groups.

Royalty Rates for Licensed Intangibles and Minerals

Posted by Ednaldo Silva

Like other expressions, economic categories reflect reality, and the term royalty isn't an exception.

Michiel de Vaa’s Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the Other Italic Languages (Brill, 2008) has no entry for royalty or its lemma. See his near-neighbor entry (Vaa, pp. 517-518): rego ("to direct, guide, govern"), but the listed cognates don't refer to payments or other economics allusions.

The Oxford English Dictionary, an erudite arbiter of the English language, includes several meanings for royalty (noun (plural royalties)), and attributes its origin from Old French roialté, from roial (regal): 

“The sense ‘royal right (especially over minerals)’ (late 15th century) developed into the sense ‘payment made by a mineral producer to the site owner’ (mid-19th century), which was then transferred to payments for the use of patents, trademarks, and copyrighted materials.”

See the Oxford English Dictionary. Cite: “royalty, n.”