Consider two aspects of statistical reliability principles. First, reliability can be measured by the ratio of the selected parameter *estimate* divided by its *standard error*. We want this reliability ratio to be as high as possible. Second, reliability depends on sample size such that larger samples produce more reliable estimates.

Transfer pricing rules recognize that statistical estimates of the selected profit indicator must consider multiple-year analysis to achieve a reliable measure of arm’s length taxable income. See OECD (2017), ¶¶ 3.75-3.79 and US Treas. Reg. § 1.482-1(f)(2)(iii).